Renewable ethanol - mobility with a future
The future of ethanol is proverbially "on the road". Ethanol is already available as a fuel in several different forms today. Renewable and climate-friendly, it is helping to ensure that mobility has a future. 85% of the world's ethanol production is used in the fuel sector.
Ethanol as a fuel for all internal combustion engines
Most of the petrol fuels in Europe, contain ethanol or ingredients manufactured from it. Standards determine what chemical properties the various grades of petrol may have, and what ingredients they may contain. It also permits the addition of ethanol in various ways:
- as a high-performance fuel component
The production of the octane booster ETBE (ethyl tertiary butyl ether) has for a long time been the main application of ethanol in the European fuel sector. The increasing direct blending of ethanol to petrol has led to ETBE becoming less important. ETBE is composed of around 47% ethanol and 53% isobutylene and is used as a petrol additive to enhance its anti-knock properties. Petrol in Europe is permitted to contain up to 15 vol.-% of ETBE.
- as additive E5
E5 may contain a maximum of 5 vol.-% sustainable ethanol. It is currently the standard petrol in Europe. At fuel pumps, however, this fuel is not labeled E5, but rather super, premium or similar. The quality parameters for E5 are defined in Norm EN228. Before the European fuel quality directive was adapted, all petrol fuels in Europe had to meet this standard.
- as additive E10
The "Fuel Quality Directive" created the opportunity for the introduction of E10 fuel, i.e., the blending of 10 vol.-% of ethanol in petrol, throughout Europe. Meanwhile, Super E10 is offered in more and more EU member states. The quality requirements for E10 are defined in Norm 51626-1.
©Four Motors/Foto Flach
- as additive E20
Newer Models can even be powered with E20, e. i. an ethanol content of up to 20% in petrol. Since 2016, the racing team Four Motors has been demonstrating this impressively at the Nürburgring (Germany). Their bioconcept cars, a Porsche Cayman GT4 Clubsport and a Porsche 911 GT3 Cup, powered with E20 from CropEnergies, participate successfully at long-distance races such as the 24-Hour Race.
Sustainable ethanol in E85
E85 fuel blends have an ethanol content of up to 86% and can be used on vehicles that have been specially designed or converted to run on it, so-called "Flexible Fuel Vehicles" (FFVs). A technically relatively simple modification enables FFVs to run both on conventional petrol and on ethanol-petrol blends with an ethanol content of up to 86%. For the motorist, this means a unique flexibility as it is possible to choose between two types of fuel according to availability and price. E85 is currently not available in Germany.
For technical reasons, it is not advisable to use 100% ethanol, as it is used in Brasil, as fuel in our temperate climatic regions. That is why E85 is used in Europe. The addition of petrol improves cold-starting characteristics in the winter. Owing to its high ethanol content the use of E85 on a nationwide basis offers the greatest potential for reducing the dependence on fossil fuels.
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